The major concern is dysfunction of the mitral valve, which connects the left atrium and left ventricle. The mitral component of the atrioventricular valve can be very abnormal and long term, the mitral valve can often result in a combination of both mitral insufficiency leakiness and stenosis. This valve will be closely monitored through echocardiography and may require reoperation or replacement if stenosis or insufficiency is progressive. Surgery to correct this problem is not uncommon and usually successful, though occasionally re-operations are necessary. In rare cases, heart block may develop in the AVC patient, either spontaneously or as a result of surgery. Heart block is a condition in which the impulses from the heart's natural pacemaker sinoatrial node are delayed 1st degree heart block , partially blocked 2nd degree , or completely blocked 3rd degree as they make their way to the pumping chambers the ventricles.
Heart Attack Risks in Young People
Atrioventricular Septal (AV Canal) Defects in Children
Click here to view a larger image. An atrioventricular septal defect AVSD is a heart defect in which there are holes between the chambers of the right and left sides of the heart, and the valves that control the flow of blood between these chambers may not be formed correctly. This condition is also called atrioventricular canal AV canal defect or endocardial cushion defect. In AVSD, blood flows where it normally should not go. The blood may also have a lower than normal amount of oxygen, and extra blood can flow to the lungs. This extra blood being pumped into the lungs forces the heart and lungs to work hard and may lead to congestive heart failure. There are two general types of AVSD that can occur, depending on which structures are not formed correctly:.
Atrioventricular Canal (AVC) Defects
The epidemiological transition in Latin America toward older urban dwelling adults has led to the rise in cardiovascular risk factors and an increase in morbidity and mortality rates related to both stroke and myocardial infarction. As a result, there is an immediate need for effective actions resulting in better detection and control of cardiovascular risk factors that will ultimately reduce cardiovascular disease burden. Data from case-control studies have identified the following risk factors associated with stroke: hypertension; smoking; abdominal obesity; diet; physical activity; diabetes; alcohol intake; psychosocial factors; cardiac causes; and dyslipidemia. In addition to its high mortality, patients who survive after a stroke present quite frequently with marked physical and functional disability. Because stroke is the leading cause of death in most Latin American countries and also because it is a clearly preventable cause of death and disability, simple, affordable, and efficient strategies must be urgently implemented in Latin America.
An echocardiogram checks how your heart's chambers and valves are pumping blood through your heart. An echocardiogram uses electrodes to check your heart rhythm and ultrasound technology to see how blood moves through your heart. An echocardiogram can help your doctor diagnose heart conditions. An echocardiogram uses sound waves to produce images of your heart. This common test allows your doctor to see your heart beating and pumping blood.